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Personal Guarantor Under IBC: Understanding the Implications

Shruti Goel
September 1, 2023
Personal Guarantor Under IBC Implications

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) has brought a paradigm shift in the Indian legal landscape,  redefining the insolvency framework for both corporates and individuals. One aspect that has garnered significant attention is the inclusion of personal guarantors under the IBC. This move has far-reaching implications not only for individuals providing guarantees but also for lenders and the insolvency ecosystem at large. In this article, we delve into the intricacies of personal guarantors under the IBC and explore the implications it brings. 

The Shift in Focus: Personal Guarantors 

Traditionally, insolvency proceedings primarily focused on corporate debtors. However, recognizing the intertwined nature of personal guarantees with corporate debts, the IBC amendments in 2019  brought personal guarantors within its ambit. This means that when a corporate debtor undergoes insolvency proceedings, personal guarantors can also be subjected to insolvency proceedings simultaneously or subsequently. 

Understanding Personal Guarantees 

A personal guarantee is a commitment by an individual, typically a promoter or director of a  company, to repay the debts of a corporate borrower in case of default. This ensures that lenders have an additional layer of security, instilling confidence in the borrowing entity's creditworthiness.  While it offers an avenue for businesses to access funding, personal guarantees expose individuals to potential financial risks in the event of corporate default. 

Implications for Personal Guarantors: 

1. Initiation of Proceedings: With the inclusion of personal guarantors, lenders now have the option to initiate insolvency proceedings against them independently of the corporate debtor. This places personal guarantors at the risk of being declared insolvent if they fail to fulfill their obligations. 

2. Stress on Guarantor's Assets: Under the IBC, the assets of the personal guarantor can be subjected to insolvency proceedings, leading to potential liquidation to recover the dues. This can have a direct impact on the guarantor's personal financial well-being. 

3. Credit Score and Reputation: An insolvency proceeding against a personal guarantor can adversely affect their credit score and reputation in the financial market. It might limit their ability to secure credit or engage in business transactions in the future. 

4. Cross-Border Implications: For personal guarantors who have assets or operations in multiple  jurisdictions, the IBC's implications can extend beyond national boundaries, posing challenges in  terms of legal proceedings and asset recovery. 

5. Avoidance Transactions: The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code allows for the avoidance of certain transactions that may have been entered into by the personal guarantor to evade the repayment of dues. Such transactions can be challenged and reversed during insolvency proceedings. 

6. Complex Legal Procedures: The involvement of personal guarantors introduces complexities in legal  proceedings as they may involve issues related to corporate insolvency as well as individual  insolvency, requiring a comprehensive understanding of both aspects

Implications for Lenders: 

1. Enhanced Security: Including personal guarantors under IBC provides lenders with an additional avenue to recover their dues, enhancing the security of their loans. 

2. Efficient Recovery: Lenders can initiate insolvency proceedings against both the corporate debtor and personal guarantors simultaneously, streamlining the recovery process. 

3. Deterrent Effect: The inclusion of personal guarantors acts as a deterrent against default, as individuals are more likely to exercise caution when giving guarantees. 

4. Risk Assessment: Lenders will likely undertake more thorough due diligence when extending credit,  considering the implications of personal guarantees on both the borrower and the guarantor. 

Challenges and Concerns: 

1. Proportionality: Some critics argue that the extent of liability imposed on personal guarantors might  not always be proportionate to their assets or contributions to the corporate borrower's default. 

2. Stress on Guarantors: Personal guarantors may find themselves in situations where the insolvency of  the corporate debtor is beyond their control, yet they bear the brunt of the financial consequences. 

3. Legal Complexities: The integration of personal guarantors into the IBC framework introduces complexities related to procedural aspects and coordination between corporate and personal insolvency proceedings. 

Balancing Debt Recovery and Individual Rights: 

The inclusion of personal guarantors under the IBC has ignited a debate between enhancing debt recovery mechanisms and protecting the rights of individuals. While the amendment strengthens creditors' position, it is crucial to strike a balance between recovery and safeguarding personal guarantors from undue financial distress. 


The extension of the IBC's scope to include personal guarantors is a significant step in enhancing creditor rights and streamlining the insolvency resolution process. However, it also raises pertinent questions about the implications for individuals who offer personal guarantees. Balancing the rights of creditors with the protection of personal guarantors' interests remains a challenge. As legal interpretations evolve and judicial precedents are set, a nuanced approach is necessary to strike a  fair balance between the interests of all stakeholders involved. 

About Ancoraa  

Ancoraa Resolution is a financial services firm focused on debt resolution and financial restructuring.  Ancoraa Resolution helps suppliers file the insolvency applications and get their dues faster by leveraging its technology platform and speeding up the recovery process. With over 35 licensed 

Insolvency Professionals located across 14 cities in India, Ancoraa Resolution ensures that you are  equipped to take speedy action in matters of insolvency, debt resolution, and liquidation.  

Ancoraa’s flagship technology, the Rezolution Engine® – is India’s first and only ‘Resolution-as-a-Service’ platform providing a collaborative digital avenue to run the entire resolution process in compliance with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code of India. Whether you are a supplier, a  homebuyer, a bank or a personal guarantor, Rezolution Engine® enables anyone to initiate an insolvency application and allows all the participants to get a single point of view to the insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings, while maintaining compliance and governance throughout the process. 

About the author
Shruti Goel

Shruti is the operations specialist at Ancoraa. She is responsible for IP engagement, company research and operational excellence initiatives. She is passionate about and writes on topics of Insolvency Technology and administers Ancoraa’s flagship technology platform ‘Rezolution Engine’.

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