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Debt Collection Agencies and Their Role Under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

Shruti Goel
November 24, 2023


In today's fast-paced world, businesses often find themselves grappling with the issue of unpaid debts,  leading to financial strain and instability. Debt collection is a challenging process that requires time, resources, and expertise. In India, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) was introduced to streamline the insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings, offering a structured framework for resolving financial distress. Debt collection agencies play a crucial role in the IBC process, serving as intermediaries between creditors and debtors. In this blog, we will explore the role of debt collection agencies in the context of the IBC and how they contribute to the resolution of unpaid debts. 

The Role of Debt Collection Agencies 

Debt collection agencies are specialized firms that are hired by creditors to recover outstanding debts from defaulting borrowers. These agencies play a pivotal role in the IBC process, especially when the insolvency resolution process is initiated by a creditor. 

Here are  some key aspects of their role: 

1. Debt Assessment: Debt collection agencies begin by assessing the outstanding debts and the financial situation of the debtor. They gather crucial information to determine the best approach for debt recovery. This assessment is essential for deciding whether the case should be taken to the NCLT for insolvency proceedings. 

2. Negotiation and Mediation: Debt collection agencies often engage in negotiations with debtors to reach an amicable settlement. Through mediation, they aim to secure a repayment plan that suits both parties, avoiding the need for lengthy legal proceedings. This can save time and resources for both the creditor and the debtor. 

3. Legal Proceedings: If negotiations fail and the debtor is uncooperative, debt collection agencies can initiate legal proceedings to recover the debt. This involves filing a petition with the NCLT to declare the debtor insolvent. The agency plays a critical role in preparing the necessary documents and presenting the case to the NCLT. 

4. Asset Valuation: In cases of insolvency, debt collection agencies are responsible for assessing the value of the debtor's assets. This valuation is crucial for determining the potential recovery for the creditors. Accurate asset valuation is a complex process and requires the expertise of professionals in this field. 

5. Distribution of Funds: The CoC may choose to continue using Debt Recovery Agencies for recovery via sale of assets exclusively charged to them by not relinquishing to the IP and, the  CIRP / Liquidation process will then not include these unrelinquished assets. 

Challenges Faced by Debt Collection Agencies 

Debt collection agencies operating under the IBC face several challenges that can impact their efficiency and success in debt recovery: 

1. Legal Complexity: The legal framework of the IBC is intricate and can be challenging to navigate. Debt collection agencies need to have a thorough understanding of the law to ensure that all procedures are followed correctly. 

2. Resistance from Debtors: Debtors may resist repayment, leading to lengthy and costly legal battles. This can be a significant challenge for debt collection agencies, as they must invest time and resources to compel the debtor to cooperate. 

3. Asset Valuation: Accurately assessing the value of a debtor's assets can be complicated.  Inaccurate valuation can lead to disputes and hinder the distribution of funds to creditors.

4. High Costs: Debt collection agencies incur costs during the debt recovery process, including legal fees and operational expenses. If the debtor's assets are insufficient to cover these costs,  the recovery process may not be economically viable. 

5. Timeliness: The IBC emphasizes the importance of timely resolution of insolvency cases. Debt collection agencies must work efficiently to meet the deadlines set by the NCLT, ensuring that creditors do not have to wait excessively for their funds. 

The Benefits of Debt Collection Agencies Under the IBC 

Despite the challenges they face, debt collection agencies bring several benefits to the insolvency resolution process under the IBC: 

1. Expertise: Debt collection agencies have specialized knowledge and experience in debt recovery and insolvency proceedings. They are well-equipped to handle complex legal and financial matters, helping streamline the process. 

2. Mediation and Settlement: Debt collection agencies often excel in negotiating settlements between creditors and debtors, potentially avoiding lengthy legal battles. This can save time and resources for all parties involved. 

3. Efficient Asset Valuation: Professional asset valuation ensures that creditors receive a fair share of the recovered funds. Debt collection agencies use their expertise to ensure accuracy in this crucial aspect of the process. 

4. Speeding up the Resolution Process: Debt collection agencies understand the importance of timely resolution under the IBC. Their efficiency can help expedite the insolvency resolution process, benefiting both creditors and the debtor. 


Debt collection agencies play a vital role in the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) framework in  India. They act as intermediaries between creditors and debtors, helping assess debts, negotiate settlements, initiate legal proceedings, and ensure the fair distribution of funds. While they face  challenges such as legal complexity and resistance from debtors, their expertise and efficiency contribute to the timely and effective resolution of insolvency cases. The role of debt collection agencies in the IBC is integral to achieving the code's objectives of expediting the insolvency resolution process, promoting economic stability, and enhancing the ease of doing business in India. 

About Ancoraa  

Ancoraa Resolution Pvt. Ltd., a company promoted and managed by experienced Insolvency professionals with a rich experience in corporate banking, debt resolution and restructuring.  

At Ancoraa Resolution, we are a team of IPs, CAs, CS, Cost Accountants, and Lawyers with deep knowledge and practical experience in the insolvency space. The professionals on our team have extensive experience in leading, managing, and successfully running insolvency processes across industries.  

Ancoraa’s flagship technology, the Rezolution Engine® – is India’s first and only ‘Resolution-as-a  Service’ platform providing a collaborative digital avenue to run the entire resolution process in compliance with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code of India. Whether you are a supplier, a  homebuyer, a bank or a personal guarantor, Rezolution Engine® enables anyone to initiate an insolvency application and allows all the participants to get a single point of view to the insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings, while maintaining compliance and governance throughout the process.

About the author
Shruti Goel

Shruti is the operations specialist at Ancoraa. She is responsible for IP engagement, company research and operational excellence initiatives. She is passionate about and writes on topics of Insolvency Technology and administers Ancoraa’s flagship technology platform ‘Rezolution Engine’.

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